Levamisole base is NOT stable and will break down as pH rises.
Levamisole Hydrochloride, on the other hand, is stable for up to 90 days in water. No specific pH necessary.
He went the extra mile and contacted the chemists who manufacture the stuff they sell which is Levamisole hydrochloride soluable powder for swine. I think I'll write him a thank you note.
On another note, then I guess it means we should be doing those large water changes after treatments, eh? 90 days...
Remarkable how faith in human kindness can be restored with one short phone call.
A possible source for the rumor?shari2 wrote:Levamisole base is NOT stable and will break down as pH rises.
Not just yet.On another note, then I guess it means we should be doing those large water changes after treatments, eh? 90 days...
1. As we talked before, it is not necessary to change the water in large changes, you can do it via multiple small too.
2. Carbon remains another option for levamisole removal.
3. It is not clear if prologned presence of levamisole in water is in any way dangerous/bad to the fish; even normal water changes will get most of it out well before 90 days.
4. The cited 90 days refer to levamisole dissolved in clean water and placed in an opaque bottle; in tank, under direct light it may degrade faster. (Actually, I do wonder a bit if the bottle was made opaque deliberately to protect the solution against light.)
PS. It is indeed great that someone was willing to answer the questions.
I will second that NancyNancyD wrote: Shari, thank you for taking the time to get an answer to the pH question.
I suppose the more little bits of info like this that come to light the more the use of Levimasole in aquariums will be understood
Pardon my honesty - I am a Northerner
14 loach species bred, which will be next?
thanks. I appreciate it.
sort of confirms the stuff i was reading. i just could not find the references that were specific during the couple of hours i spent reading. given my chemistry background i did not want to come to a conclusion by inferring. i have broken my legs too many times by jumping that way.
Just this monday we had a minor chemistry review in my A & P class. Atomic and molecular structure, bonds, chemical reactions. Had a thought in the back of my head that when the literature I was looking at kept referencing 'base' and I was looking for information on the compound with salt that there was something wrong. Duh.
I am relieved and would like to see a little something written up on levamisole and its usage for the update project. Since you have experience and background...how about it sully?
Here is a link. Hopefully, given the cross over between board members and the history of chat and other stuff the link is not perceived or misconstrued as spamming.
http://www.badmanstropicalfish.com/foru ... 114.0.html
LEVAMISOLE HYDROCHLORIDE SOLUBLE PIG WORMER
FOR USE IN DRINKING WATER
This bottle contains 18.15 grams of levamisole hydrochloride activity which will treat the following: 200 - 25 lb pigs, or 100 - 50 lb pigs, or 50 - 100 lb pigs, or 25 - 200 lb pigs
Levamisole Hydrochloride is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic and is effective against the following nematode infections in swine.
LARGE ROUNDWORMS: (Ascaris suum)
NODULAR WORMS: (Oesophagostomum spp)
LUNGWORMS: (Metastrongylus spp)
INTESTINAL THREADWORMS: (Strongyloides ransomi)
WARNING: Not for human use. Keep out of reach of children.
Restricted Drug - Use Only as Directed (California)
ANADA 200-313, Approved by FDA
DIRECTIONS FOR PREPARING SOLUBLE PIG WORMER SOLUTION
When you are ready to worm your pigs, add water to the powder in this bottle up to the 500 mL mark. Agitate to mix thoroughly before using. If any solution is left over, it may be stored for up to 3 months in this tightly capped bottle; agitate well before using.
DIRECTIONS FOR USE: Withholding water from pigs prior to treatment is not necessary for optimum anthelmintic efficacy and is not recommended during hot weather. Add 10 mL (2 teaspoonfuls) of the solution from this bottle to 1 gallon of water; mix thoroughly. Allow one gallon of medicated water for each 100 pounds body weight of pigs to be treated. No other source of water should be offered. As soon as pigs have consumed all of the medicated water resume use of regular water.
NOTE: Careful estimates of pig weights are essential for proper performance of this product.
Pigs maintained under conditions of constant worm exposure may require retreatment within 4-5 weeks after the first treatment due to reinfection.
CAUTION: Consult veterinarian before administering Levamisole Hydrochloride solution to sick swine. Consult your veterinarian for assistance in the diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitism.
Salivation or muzzle foam may be observed. This reaction is occasionally seen and will disappear in a short time after the medication.
If pigs are infected with mature lungworms, coughing and vomiting may be observed soon after medicated water is consumed. This reaction is due to the expulsion of worms from the lungs and will be over in several hours. Follow recommended dosage carefully to assure removal of worms and avoid an overdose of Levamisole Hydrochloride solution.
WARNING: Do not administer within 72 hours of slaughter for food.
Manufactured for Agri Laboratories, Ltd., St. Joseph, MO 64503
20.17 g (0.712 oz)
NAC No.: 10580671
http://www.valleyvet.com/ct_detail.html ... ccd=IFF003
I have read that Levamisole at 2mg/L of water once a week for 3 treatments is the dosage for fish done in a study done by Dr Yanong, a Vetenarian.
http://fishweb.ifas.ufl.edu/Faculty%20P ... _JAVMA.pdf
I also have a book (Colorguide to Tropical Fish Diseases) that says you can soak live bloodworms in a Levamisole solution (.5grams Levamisole in 100ml of water) for 4-5 minutes. It doesn't mention how long the treatment should last though.
Book also says to use 100mg of Levamisole per 100 liters of water for 1-2 days for treating flukes.
Many uses of Levamisole Hydrochloride discussed are for nematodes. The worm type parasitic infestation.
I guess the questions keep expanding. Are the dosages suggested for one or both. I know i am going to keep reading. I took note of the study mentioned--i think there was an environmental pH mentioned--when i first started looking at the pH question early this week. That and several other sudies are what made me wonder about the difference that Shari cleared up so neatly between Levamisole and Levamisole Hydrochloride.
I would hate to think a dosing level confusion gets generated out of the thread because of the different nature of parasite.
I guess we all need to keep reading to see if dosing levels to treat nematodes has been studied in "Peer Reviewed" papers.
Interesting in the study recently cited was also the mention of the chronic wasting even after a fish had been cleared of the protozoan..... Points to the need for clarity in diagnosis. And clarity in discussing treatment alternatives--risks and efficacy--without the use of appropriate diagnostic tools.
guess it gets more interesting......
about 1/2 again the amount I have used with used with rams. And about 25% of the amount i use with adult wild caught SA's. The amounts I used were based on the old Krib thread about Levamisole and Nematodes. And the nematode/levamisole stuff on the main site here.
I never had any fish fatalities using so much more than the amount in the reference you provided. But, other folks i have exchanged info with periodically mention respiratory distress and lethargy at the levels i use.
Cool bit of info!
it has been a week since i read that paper, really skimmed--i am going back to reread. i obviously missed writing something in my notes--was looking for something else though.
interesting was the bath treatment for 24 hours was "1 to 2 mg/L" They were small discus in the one case study. 3/4 of an inch to about 4" TL. Case Study C had the fish at about 1/2"-3/4" TL. I wonder if fish size/age/mass makes a difference? They were dealing with very young/small fish.
Shari, you ready to call the next set of folks--lol. there be a whole bunch of folks on that report.
i think i am at least sending an e.mail that way. no need to hurry.
I have the agrilabs levamisole currently. Used it on my panaque.
18.15 grams of levamisole powder
Added water to the 500ml mark.
For a 30g tank I used 1 tsp of solution to treat the tank. So what's that?
5ml/30g? Too d*mn tired tonight to do the math...
Should it have worked? Dunno. Seems it did.
What I did:
Day 1- 30% water change, lowered water level for splash, lights out, no carbon (didn't use it anyway), added 1 tsp of liquid levamisole.
Day 2- water change, left out the lights, no treatment.
Day 3- another w/c, no lights, 1 tsp liquid med.
Day 4- 9 no treatment. Small water changes every day, or every other day. Light feeding, but available wood for free feeding. Shortened light period. I was treating a panaque who prefers the dark, anyway.
Day 10 - w/c, 1 tsp liquid med.
Day 11 - end of treatment cycle. W/c, back to normal light schedule, added carbon to make sure to remove any residue.
Fish was feeling obviously better by day 2. Made steady improvement. I also treated with aquarisol for three days in the beginning because of plaque lesions on the fish.
So--how far off was I in the recommended dosing levels? WAY too tired to go there tonight...
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